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1 2 3 








(ANSI and fSO tlST CH«I No. 2) 





25 1 

iil III 1.6 


The Trans-Oanada Railway. 

Ity an Act of the rarliamcnt of the Dominion of Canada pasied in the year 
1895, chapter 68, a charter wa« grunted for the construction of this railway from a 
point nt or near Qnobeo to the TaciKc Ocean at Port Simpson or Port Easingtop. 
This Oharter wns ninonded in 1897, chapter 65, so as to provide lor the commence- 
ment of the works not later than2»th June, 1901, and for their completion within 
ten yer.s from the passing of the Act, and granting power for the constrnction of 
a branch line to Montreal. 

As the Quebec and Lake St. .lohn Railway rans north-westward from tho City 
of Quebec in a direction suitable for the shortost location of this railway, and as the 
rivers flowinir into Lake St. John on the one sid ■ and ,Iam(!S Hay on the other otfer 
,■« route which will give the easiest gradients crossing tho heiglit of land between 
th") waters flowing into the St Lawrence and those flowing into James Bay, and 
as ibis route will give the railway the advantage of two eastern seaports, namely, 
Quebec and Chicoutimi, it has been decided to make use of that line between 
Quebec and its north-western termmus at Roberval, Lake St. John. 

AVork was accordingly commenced at Roberval on the 28th June, 1901, in the 
presence of an immense concourse of people, the clergy of the district giving the 
enterprise evidence of their sympathy and support by an impressive religions 
ceremonial on- that occasion. Sixty miles of the railway have also been located 
from Roberval westward towards James Day, and the plans and profiles have been 
deposited with the Dominion and Provincial Uovernments according to law. 

The first division of the railvay f/om Roberval to James Bay, 8^0 miles in 
length, will pass through the centre of the new territory recently acquired by the 
Province of Quebec from the Dominion, so that it would be in the interest of the 
Province to develop this new territory, 70,000 square miles in area, by this route, 
in preference to any ither. A iplication has been made to the Province for aland 
grant, and the question is no « under consideration. 

f Three different explorations of the James Bay territory have been made by Mr. 
Henry O'Sullivan, C.E., director of Provincial Surveys, and his opinion of the 
country and its re.-ources is given in a short report from him, annexed hereto. 

The Hon. Lomer Oouin, Minister of Colonization aud Public Works of the 
Province of Quebec, made an inspection of the ccintry to be traversed by a portion 
of tha first division of th'5 railway in September last, and expres; ed himself as being 
very much surprised and impressed with the fertility of the soil and the resources 
of the country. 

On the 16th February, 1901, the President and other representatives of the 
Quebec Board of Trade and of tho Company had an interview with the Right Hon . 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier at Ottawa, and submitted a memorial, a copy of which is 
annexed, setting forth tha advantages of 'he railway at considerable length. 

After due consideration the Oovernment recognized the merits of the project 
and submitted to Parliament a subsidy bill, which was dniy ratified, granting a 
subsidy of $3,200 per mile— or $193,000— in aid of the first sixty miles ot the 
railway from Roberval westward, to be increased to 15,400 per mile, should the 
cost be in excess of $15,000 per mile to that extent. 


The inilcnao of th.! propoicl railway, iiUowinu Ihi- uiiwl petccnlag.,' lor lo«» ill 
curvuluro will i:oiii|i.ire as follows with otluT ojinlirii? rmtei : 

Qu..t,«. .0 V.u.....v,.r (C. IV It.) ■■■■■■■ :■ 'I;'''* ■"*'-"■ 

(jucli'i: I.I I'l.ii Siniiisoii (TrHiid-rsimli Hailwnyt -/ ■'] _ 

Chii'imliini Ici I'ort !>inipiioii " •' " ^■'■'•' 

(Ini'li.'n lo Yiikiih iiMii (via Vanconver) [■•';•' 

Cliicoiitiini 1(1 Yokohaimv (via Port Siniimoii). "'''■' 

Vnncouv,.r I,. Yokohama .Ir.'l', '"'■''''■ 

Port Mnipnoii lo Yokohama "■■ * 

yuebec to Nollaway •.','^ ""„" 

Koberval to Niiltttway • . 

Kobiirval to Chiuoutimi -"* 

Winnipeg to QueWc (via C. P. R )•,••■■■;• ■•■■ ' ";; ">'.',"'■ 

.. •• •• (vis projeiifd ■! C. U.) J-^'' ^_ 

" Chicoulimi " ' " j^!',* 

• Nottawny " " " V:'.' „ 

" Churcliill (projected) ""' 

Moo«n Factory to Toronto •;';''^' "".',*''• 

Head Waters St. Maurii^e lo Montreal 



.■> yean.. 

Moose Factory, James Bay •'',■'' J'?^ ''^• 

Quebe.- '.''.' 

liimouski.. "'l 

C'hicontiini '.,', 

Winnipeg "' 

Norway House • 



Athabasca Lauding 


Port Simpson 


,, T7 ,„,,. 80 inches 

Moo»c fattory ,, 

Montreal '" 


Trans-Canada (Pino Birer Pass) 2,800 ' 

(Peace River Pass! --W™ 

Canadian Pacific (Kicking Horse Pass) "•■""> 

The soil, climate, minerals and other resources of 'he couutr> 

In ls9,-i» 




"" i 

.;; .^ 


liO 1 

85 i 


;c-en James 

snrveys of the Province of CJnebec. 

Quebec, January, 1902. 

."^^r^^r^urn. VuMy fur„i.hej by M.. B. F. St-p^TDireotor of Met«„.l. gicl S-r-Ue .t T,.,n,„o. 


The Trans-Canada Railway. 

iJI'ElilX; ir.lh h'lhriiiiiit- Itml. 


The Right Hon. 5//? WILFRID LAURIER, G.C.M.G . 



The Quebec Bodid oi' Tniilo and the prntnoU-rH (>r th>' TrunM-Ciitiml.. iriihvay 
Company, represented hy the delegated i.ow pruweut iit thin interview, hej,,- refip-et- 
I'ully to Hubinit to the Government a very important project, prnlmbty the most 
important which has been brought ^>etbre the (iovernmcnl ol Canatbt ^Ince the 
inception of the Canadian Patific Railway. 

By an act ot the Dominion I'arliament passed in 1^0,5 unti amended in 1H07. a 
charter was granted lor a railway from th. City ol' r^uebec, pasMiny- north of Lake 
Winnipeg, to Port Simpson on the I'acilir const, with a branch to Montreal, and 
this charter is now being umcn led to provide for branches to Winnipeg and Toronto.. 
and to give the Company the op, ion .0 start from Luke St John instead of Quebec. 

The annexed map ahowft ihc proposed line from ijnebec and from the head of 
navigation of the Kivor iJagnenny to Jnmes Day, and tlience touching the north end 
of Lake Winnipeg, passing through the Peace River district and the Peace ov Pine 
Giver puss, to Port Simpson on the Pacific coat»t, with briinches to Toronto and 

The a''"antages of such a line '.vould be, brieily, thee-* : — 

1. Dl."<TAN"E — The distance from (Quebec to Port Simpson would Ih' 2.'(0 miles 
shorter than that from Quebec to Vancouver by the C. P. R., and from Cbicoulimi 
to Port Simpson Jl TO miles shorter. The distance from Chicoutimi to Winnii>eg 
would b»i 280 miles si^orter tha.i from Quebec (C. P. R.) to Winnipeg. The distance 
from I'hiooutimi to Yckchama would be 720 miles shorter than from (Quebec to 
Yokohama by C. P. R. 

2. Gradiknth — Th>}Bnmmitof this line, in the Pine or Peace Kiverpass, would 
be about 2,000 or 2,800 feet above tide— The C. P. R. summit, further south, is 5,400, 
and one oi" the American Pacific roads reaches en elevation of 11,000 feet. The 
summit bevveen the St. Lawrence and James Bay ik less than 1.200 feet, and the ap- 
proaches to both summits are so gradual that *: ore should be no difficulty in 
obtaining a maximum gradient of one pet cent., from ocean to ccean, and possibly 
the maximum of 6-lOths of l^^ , which is now so eagerly sougnt for by American 
Trunk lines. 

3. Seaports. — The harbor of Port Simpson is said to be the finest on the Paci- 
fic coast north of San Francisco. Nottaway is the only deep water harbor on 
James Bay, and with some dredging can be entered by vessels drawing thirty 
feet. The coast line of James and Hudson Bays^ tributary to this railway, will be 
about 4,000 miles. Chicoutimi (six mileu belov/ the town) can be reached by res- 
tiles of any draught, and Quebec has magnificent docks, which hare cost^the 
Government 53,000,000, with deep-water berths and elevator facilities for steam- 
>^hipt» drawing (should such draught be necessary hereafter) forty fc.t of water. It 

.uilmble con.lraction. Thj B»l lo ttiiiil » l«w y««" ■? .j „a nil winlw by 
U„r.tnce, all «l«to,. Now .... rcg»l.'ly ,^''^ „'; ^ gi^^^^L with no difficulty 
many .t..mer. carrying Irom bfiOO » "•^""/^'''^fiS',,,,, »(„ „»king « winl.r port 
a. to inanrance. In any ;»«■'"«"'' ".„ i. moallv .alt-water ice, eaaily hrokeu. 
" Chicoutimi. The ic in the S'f""'"', " "^ i^ „11 d«,..w.....r and ,r"«ected 
the Saguenay oH.r. Pf ','[•?' ""b'j.Lu.d .'he ft I'^wrenci from the Sag...nay to 
lronnnow-«<orms by wal'liK'' o"'" • """ ^^ hioh eiiat .0 wme eitent be- 

the .ea ha. none of the .hoal. •»;fX 'heae ,'rU l.o*empor«rily in».ce..ible at any 

goe. to .how tha. th.. h'" '«^^'^' ;' ^^^.j^'J ^'^g, ,„m™er ..mperature during 

wlZillg ™. b. ^r„wn in'tW Jame. Hay .ern.ory. 

, S„„,-U,.eni,.x„lora,ion, prove . ha. }^j;<>^,^^tJ:;Z^'^XTL 
i, „.,ual .0 .h». of .he S,^ ^r::Z\ZtZJiMc°LXo'' to .how .ha. the 
vnlliy iB well known lor lis ''''''' '^^""wSeg and betweeS Lake Winnip.-gand 
.oantrv be. ween .Tame- B^/'"! 1^^., il mT^e .»id that the whole .ountry from 
Tom e Uiver, i» aUo excellent So 'han. ma> ^^^ ^ ^^ ^ ,„i 

.he Sogu..u,.y 1" .he '':^'''''^!'^'' ^ 'tuio '" "..ffi'ien. in fact, if the zone between 
could -P1-; -V-'-'S"":;.." s" d^toTe btd.tnff. for .he British Ule.. and 
•^i'k'e' thcm'!.:SeVMnt of all ioreign eonntriea. 

e. M,..U.. .NO Tt-Kt-Tbe ;ep.. oMhe^^^^ 
cate that .his country isrich >""»»"?'•■, ' "' "; The district nor'h of Peace 
Bay country, together wi.h l'S»"« ™»' «^„^t ^X^f^een the Rookie, and the Pacific 
Itivcr abou.,.ls in pelro eu.n »'V^ '"l" S""",7 ^j "(.."per, and a branch from .hi. 

foast in bituminous and anthracite «7.'' 8°'f *"'^i7JX'y»>'<'° g"'-* »«'''' ''"'"''' 
r. would otler the -hortesyouU, on ta-^^ 

a railway ever ''V-'f,''lVwmn'D^rare timbered with the best of .prace, and the 
^::Xtl^:l!^:^^'^^"^ th. .imbennto P.1P and paper. 

, MiUT^UV .NO N.vM..-ln '"— .^ of ho.uliJi« ^.^ - neighbor, 
whi'h itis.. cer,.ly .0 i>e hope. -^ -" J^' 'll„,Sn' would never be 
be oroken in tweu.y P'' ."","" ,""'300 to 600 miles from the frontier pro- 
restored. The propoBeU bnc being liomrfiuioD Simpson, would be 

tec.ed bv llee.s at Quebec. Saguenav, ^°"*"l/support of th. British Govern- 
mpr^gnible.andfor this reason should rccene the u^^ ^, ^„„„„ 

8 M vs.TO„...-The branch .0 Winnipe. would give ^^e Province of Mam- 
,„b, its sho ..^' -Id cheapest outlet to '•;,';,»^~„Jdt:nU would, it is estimat- 

evel character ot ,he road and .he eonse^^e-t «aj g«« ;,^„,, p„ b„,he. lesa 
ed, make it profitable .0 haul w.\«"t » ^'3 seaboa ^^^^ ^^ 

thku it now costs Ihe iarmer ol M«'>'»»^^ J°^^ ^^a" should the navigation of 
would nearly pay the iiuerest "»'" /"f ° he di»ta»<=« f'<"» Winnipeg to the 
K\if &wir ^o^S ^'^ ^r than via OhurcbUI, and through a 

muchbettf. country 

For »ll thi't'> raaMU w« think (hat th« line inHioited on the tfniloMd mtp 
woold be th< b«>t that coald )»• hailt, from an tupe; iai at wi-ll aa Canadian [Hyint 
of yiew, and it ahould not b« forKOlti-n that for iti entire length it will paaa throuKh 
a coantrjr betwean latitudva 47 and S4, or in (he lamc geographical poaition aa 
Paria, Berlin and Wanaw in Europe. 

Thi> great fl:iancial lucceta achieved bjr (he Canadian Pacific hn* rendered it 
much eiMier (o aecnre capital Tor such an underlukin ' aa thii than it waa twenty 
yean ago, and the project ahonld not have the antagonum of the capital intvreateu 
In the Canadian PaciHc, as it inutit he iK'ueAcial to tnat road by putting population 
into the :tone of country between thu two linert. 

The Trani'Canada might readily be amHigamated with Mitari McKenaio ft 
Mann'a Canadian Northern, aa ita location i'rnin the Haalotchewan to Port iiimpaon. 
and from Manitoba to Quebec, would bi> the beat that could be aelected fur outleta 
to both oceans for that road. 

Wf have reuaon to expert that the Pro\inoe of Quebi'f will i^ruut a >tuhaidy 
of land, probably iO.OO" acren per mile, lor the lir«l »i'.iion M ihiii railway from 
l^ke St. .John to James Bay, about iiW raile<t, and ii is hopeil that the Province ot 
Ontario may grant a ainiilar subsidy from JameN Bisy ' thu weaterii boundary 
■of the Provnice near Lake Winnipeg. 

If the Dominion Uovernm>-tit would grant the u>ual(lonbIo anbsidy of 9ti,400 
per mile, it i» believed that a Hnancial b.i»i« would bi' .v-iahlishi'd which would 
■ecure the necessary capital to carry out this mo^st important undertakiiig which 
will make Canada a solid country wiih breadth and great auriiultural resonrcea, 
instead of a fringe of settlement subject, as it now is, to the good wiP -IVom day 
to day— of our powerful neighbors to the tSunth. 

Where the line pasaea through Dominion lands it would o[ course be expected 
that the Dominion will grant the aame land aubaidy aa the Provincial Govern- 

On this financial basis the promoters of this enterprise would bo prepared to 
auggeat the following advantagea to Canada, advantages waioh have never yet 
been offered to the country by any other railway corporotion : — 

1. — To conatruct the entire road with steel rails and steel bridges of Canadian 
manufacture, thus oiiering to the new steel and iron works at Sydney, Midland, .^ault 
Ste. Marie and Hamilton an immediate market for an immense quantity of steel. 

2. — To give free transportation from fjuebec to any point on its line for all 
immigrants and boiui fide new settlers and their etfects. 

8 — To carry wheat from all points on its line in the Province of Manitoba to 
the ocean steamer at Chicoutimi or Quebec for nine cents per bushel, thus saving 
the farmer of Manitoba about seven cents per bushel on present freight rates to the 

We have the honor to be. 
Your obedient servants. 

<Sig.) J. a SCOTT, 

Acting Secretary 
Trana-Canada Railway, 


Quebec Board of Trade. 

Tr«nil«tion of a letter from the Kev. Father Ntdelec, Uto MUrion.ry at James Bay. 

Matlawa, 15th November, 1887. 

J. O. Scott, Esq, 


Dear Sir,— 

I beK to acknowledge receiptor vour letter of the 8th, in which vovi ask 
rae fir ^formation abou? the vast Hudson'^ Bay '"^tory : -the Siberia of tanada. 
In order to answ.r your qnestiona satiafactonly one "■7'"»;^ ;°,'^';'" ^^""/h 
a geologiBt, a mineralogist and even a farmer, ma word an "P"' '" ""^ ^^""^° 
of knowledea I confess that I am only a missionary to the Indians and tne 
^han?v men of the Ottawa. Nevertheless,' I shall always esteem it a pl^"""" «"^ 
a dnty t™ obCe you to the utmost of my capacity, to the depth of "y kno^'lffS* 
and extent of m/observations. Beyond this, I can but refer you to good authov.t.e. 
on each .uVj-ct. Bnt to answer your questions : — 





The country is generally habitable, excepting a lew places, chiefly along the 
coast. Along the East coast the fishing is good. , . .^ , . , , , 

-All kinds of grain, except wheat and buckwTieat, also fruit and vegetables, 
are L a rull grown with sucofss, except in a few scattered places on the 

I Zait difiicuH to say what population might he supported in this territory. 
There is room for mi'lions, with improved agriculture and the de^clop- 

ment of industries. i - r o A r-^^arrc^ 

-The extreme heat is 100 <= and extreme oold on the coast-;.5 . Average 

-ln"some"pfaces'lhe climat,- is better than that of 'he north ot Germany 
rXnd Norwav, north of Scotland, Uke St. .lotin, Newloundland, In 

ome parts the" natural resources are '^^'^^'f ^ fntlJ^tsT !ohn 
U a general rule it resembles Quebec and the dis rict ol L^ke St John 
All that I can say is that f.-.e country is larger and more habitab.e than 

-The""soU^sTnt"neral of clayey nature. See '■ Les Relations des J^suites ■• 
Journey rem Uke St. John to Hudson's Bay-Proulx See also reports 
of Bowen, Stipendiary Magistrate, of Manitoulin Islands, Ontario -favor- 

-rpuleen Lake Temiscamingue and height of land, white and red pine. 

jpruce and soft birch abound; on the other side of the height of laud, 

spruce, soft birch and cedar. 
-See the report of Ur. Bell, geologist, as to minerals. ^ „ ,, , „. 

-Any amount of fur, birds and fish ; whales also abound. See the report of 

Captain tiordon, 1885, 1886-7. 
10th.— The snow-fall is not excessive. 


What was Canada 200 years ago ? What were the United States? In my 
opinbn it NTould be a good thing foTthe Province of Quebec to take possession of 
^haHart of Hudson's Bay that Belongs to it. Your Company ought to es,-blish 
Ao^drrnsetUcSients in thl Bay. The^are the very p«PP^ /"J^l^^^^ ^at 
when the resources of the country are developed and weal h »'"»'^«''' * f'*""'?^^^^ 
should be sent from Quebec to further develop and explore the country, while^ 
waiting for the railway through the valley ot St. Maurice. 



Yours truly. 


J, M. NEDELEO, 0. M, I., 

Indian Missionary. 

Extracts from a Letter from Rev. Father Paradis, formerly Missionary 
AT Moose Factory. 

" This territory i« very suitable for settlement and the land is first-class. From 
Lake Temiscamingue, which is 6R0 feet above the sea, to Moose Factory, » J"" "»=« 
of 300 miles is one black clay plain, very suitable lor grain, and well wooded witn 
maple and other hardwoods. At the height of land, 920 feet above the sea, pine is 
found in abundance, also some very large poplar. From Lake Abittihi to James 
Bay the finest spruce in America is to be found, and on th,i south side ol tne 
mountains some red pine. 

Temperature :— The thermometer has been as low as .50 below zero at Moose 
Factory-iu summer as high as 100 above: at the height of land the summers 
are colder ; average snow-fall three feet, which is much less than at Quebec. 

Products :~The best possible potatoes and all root crops, arc grown here. 
Grain has not been tested to any great extent. 1 think wheat would succeed as 
well a» in Manitoba. Oats, hay and barley would certainly succeed. Natural hay, 
excellent for cattle-raising, is v eiy plentiful. Excellent beef is raised here. 

G\me— Wild geese and duck are abundant at Fort Albany, north of Moose 
Factory ■ 36,000 <'"ese are killed there annually lor provisions for the Hudson s 
Bay Company by the Indians, that being the number they are expectiKl to lurnish. 

MiNER\i ••— See Dr. Bell's report. I find him very conscientious in his 
reports Gypsum abounds at the month of the Abittibi Kiver. 1 think there is 
coal and petroleum on the river. Iron is plentiful. Mineral springs abound. 

Sturgeon abound in the rivers ; and on the east coast, 30 miles from shore, 
porpoises and all fish found in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, are found in great 

I have no hesitation in recommending the construction of a railway from 
Quebec to James Bay. Indians say that the land towards Lake Mutassim is also 
A-ery level with a clay soil. Towards the height of laud it is sandy and rocky. 
Some prairies, 4 to fi miles wide, without trees, extend to the west ol .Tames Bay, 
according to the Indians some 1200 miles. 

I think this country might be compared lo Germany in Europe, and the Fort 
Albany district with Russia. 

The climate resembles that of Kamouraska, with the same Itowers, wild fruits, 
such as gooseberries, strawberries, juniper berries tnd cranberries. 

At Moose Factory there are some splendid gardens, containing currants, 
gooseberries and all kinds of vegetables. In one of them there is an ash tree, 
planted ten years ago, that now measures 13 inches diameter. 

Ice leaves the rivers about end of April, and the Bay is navigable from 5th to 
ISth May. Closes from Ist to 20th November. The highest tide is 10 feet. 

i^o''^)- Geolooioal Survey, 

Ottawa, 7th March, 1887. 
J. G. Scott, Esq., 


Dbak Sir,— 

Your favor of the 4th reached me this morning, and I beg to answer yonr ques- 
tion! jeriad'm as follows : — 

l._A considerable proportion of the territory southward of James Bay is fit 
for settlement. 

2 -Mv own explorations have not extended eastward of the Basin of Moose 
River In tSrt eiin a great deal of good land is found between the water shed 
o the irreat lakes and the commencement of the low level .ounlry to the south 
westwud of James Bay. This would comprise about one-tbird of the region be- 
Uveon Lake Sup" ior and James Bay. The soil is mostly brownish g^vel'y loain 
and bgh colored clay, with sand in some parts. In .'^%™»'f^™f J" then thTs 
the ground is level, the surface is apt to be covered with deep moss, but when tnis 
tim^Jr has been burnt otf and replaced by deciduous trees, the ground is dry. 

3 -The summer and winter temperatures resemble those of the founty of 
Rimouski. The summers not so hot, nor the winters so cold as at Winnipeg. 

4.-The average snow-fall is about three feet, or a little more, still not quite so 
great as about the City of Quebec. 

5 -Potatoes and all othe' kinds of root crops have been lound to do remarkably 
well Hay al°o grows luituriantly. Barley would, I think, be a sure crop every 
Tear atVd rye could also be grown with advantage Barley is «»wn every year at 
CeFacorv and Rupert's House, and it has ripened well every year that I have 
TsTd these at,, ^tiU it is .aid to fail some years, However, these places are 
much further north than the region I have indicated, and what is wor^e for them, 
Ty arrnear the sea, which i.s said to have an unfavorable influence m the autnrnn 
Mr^Iohn Mclntyre now of Fort William) says he has ripened wheat at Mssimb, 
and New Brunswick House, within the above area I have had experiments made 
a New Brunswick House and at Norfolk, on the Abittibi River, with a great variety 
of field a id garden seeds, and the results proved that this region is capable of grow- 
?Lauv'hin-vhi.h. an be raised, say in the County of Kimouski. I regard the 
iedou Is w?ll suited for sto.k raising and dairy farming, and it ,s not unlikely to 
prove fit for grain also. 

The soil at Moose Factory is heavy and cold, still vegetables, &o., grow sue- 
cessluUv here Among the kinds may be mentioned potatoes beans peas, turnips 
betts carrots, cabbages^ onions, &c., *c. As showing the absence ol snramer r^t 
.t Moose Factory in 1877, 1 mention at page 27 c of my rei>prt for that year, that, on 
oafXntoZo"pFacory(from the North), in the end of September, we found 
that there had been no frost ihere all summer, and the most tender Pl^nU, such « 
melons and cucumbers, beans, balsams, tobac -o, the castor oi bean, &c., growing 
IS the open air, were -still quite green and flourishing. That summer was, how- 
ever, probably a finer one than usual. 

It has been objected to this statement by some Hudson Bay Co.'s men, that I 
»hou d have mentioTed that some of the above plants had been started in the house. 
Bntiui wardto°show, w.^s the absence of summer frosts that year. These plant, 
are generally started under glass in other parts of Canada as well. 

6.— White and red pine grow in the »outhern part of the basin of Mooae River, 
but the timber moat abundant throughout the whole country, consiats of white and 
black spruce, tamarac, white cedar (as far north as Moose Factory), white birch, 
aspin, rough-barked poplar, "Jack" pine and bouleau. There is a little elm, and 
black ash, in the southern part, but it is not worth counting commercially. Some 
of the above woods are worth exporting. 

7.— Minerals are to bo found in this region ; nearly all the metals are to b« 
looked for in the Huronian formation, a belt of which is believed to run all the 
way from near Lake Abittibi, to the south of Lake Mistassini, and this would be 
crossed by any railway from Quebec to .lames Bay. Iron and gypsum are abundant 
to the north-west of Moose Factory. 

The shores of Hudson's Bay, that would be tributary to the projected railway, 
afford a variety of useful minerals in paying quantities. 

8— Coal cannot be said to have been found in the region under consideration. 
I found lignite in various places on the Missinabi and Moose Rivers; also indi- 
cations of it on the Mattagami and Albany Rivers, but the quality was mostly 
inferior, and in a well wooded country like this, would not be in demand for fuel. 
I also found anthracite on a long island on the east coast of Hudson's Bay, but I do 
not think the quantity likely to prov" great, although the quality was first-class. 
As far as we are yet aware, there is a chance, geologically speaking, of finding coal 
in the islands on .lames Bay, but we have no evidence, as yet, of its actual existence 

9— Among the fish found in James Bay and Hudson's Bay, may be mentioned 
a fine white fish, lake trout of Lake Superior, and some smaller species, sea trout, 
salmon, rock cod, oapling. &c., besides strictly fresh water fishes in the rivers and 
lakes, such as speckled trout. Backs' grayling and pickerel, pike, &c. The fisheries 
of the bay will probably be found to be valuable. The oil producing animals, such 
as seals and porpois.;s, may be included under " the Jisheriesy 

10— I have not considered ihe subject sufficiently, as yet, to say whether I 
would recommend the construction of a railway from Quebec to James Bay, or not ; 
but if it should be decided to go on with such a line, the objective point might be the 
mouth of the Rupert River, the southern extremity of Rupert Bay, or Hannah Bay. 
Deep enough water can, I think, be found at these points and leading out from them, 
although the south end of James Bay is shallow. If a railway were built to the 
south end of James Bay, steamers might run up the East main coast, which I 
beheve (from experience) will prove attractive as a summer resort for the people of 
the United States and Canada. 

For further information, I would refer you to some of my reports under page 
27 c, with general survey reports for 1879-80, and page 7 c, on ditto for 1877-78. 

I am, Dear Sir, 

Tours truly, 

(Signed,) ROBERT BELL, C.E., M.D. 


LORETTK, 29th DEOKMBEB, 1901. 

J. Q. S(X)TT, Esq., 
(ieneral Manager, 

Trans-Canada liailway Co., 


Deau Sik : 

to answer your questions in the order given : — 

Is/ -"What pro{K.rtion. approrimately, of the territory in <l»«?ti«»%^»''j,,°f 
East Main liiver and west of Lake Mistassini, would you consider to be ht for settle 
ment ?" , 

climatic conditions prove favorable. 

o„rf —"What is the nature ol the soil '! 

An, The soil i. .hieily clay or clavev or sandy loam, with here and there 
knollfof";;ure sand thickly Lverll with ".iack pine wherever the country has been 

persona knowledge of h- >.oun r^ „/lLd from the m.ridian of Lake Mislassin. 
ee\r«wTre^ttLioVo'^nd:;#.:i'?can salWy sav that, as regards the nature 
of the aoil, the northern sloi« is f:,r superior to the southern. 

3rJ-" What is the nature ol this climate ; and what about the snowfall '!" 

accompanying plans and profiles. 


4(J.— What description of grain and root crops do you considor could bo 
profitably raised if there were railway communication througti the center of this 
territory ? and is the country suitable for raising live stock ? 

An$.— Oats, barley, peas and buckwheat. Whent has bcenjaised at AVaswanipy, 
about the center of the region in question, and the grain grown from seed raised 
there succeeded as well as from the seed sent there by Dr. K. Bell. Director of lh.> 
Geological Survey, from the experimental farms.— See Dr. Hell's reports 1895-6. 
I'otatoes, cabbage, turnips and nearly all kinds of vegetables arowii in Canada, arc 
successfully raised at Waswanipy, Rupert House and Moose Factory, and even as 
tar north as East Main Fort. 

It appears that sheep are move successfully raised at Ih.' latter po"' 'haii at 
Kuiiert House. , , , . , . 

Splendid homed cattle are raised at all those posts : the r>iily <lia\vbacli to 
stock raising there may be in the length of the winters. 

5Wi.— "Is the country well timbered, and with what kinds of timber r 

Ans—The country is in general well covered with sprme, the chief marketable 
timber ; poplar and bouleau (white birch) are also found in abundance, wherever 
forest fires have made their mark. Iknksian or jack pine is seen in the pnorev 
districts, bnt there is no white or yellow pino beyond the height ot land, with the 
exception of a few straggling groves in the neighborhood of Lake Abittibi 

A species of large poplar lalled Linril or balm of Gilead, grows very extensive- 
ly in the Mekiscan Valley, some large enough to give lour or five saw-logs of from 
one to 2J feet diameter without limb or knot 

This kind of timber is said to be earnestly sought lor by cabinitmukivs 
Tamarac for railway construction is found throughont the entire region, but a good, 
ly i<ortioii of it has been recently killed by the saw lly 

C(/i.— "What minerals are likely to be found ?" 

Ans— Iron in abundance, copper, gold ; in fact all Iho minerals may be looked 
for in the Huronian belt that traverses this region from Lake Mistassini westward. 
See (ieological IJeports. 

7(/,_"What are the fisheries, and are they likely to prove valuable V" 

All!.— The whitefish, trout, sturgeon, pike and dore of the interior lakes and 
rivers of the Xottaway basin will certainly become valuable if railway communi- 
cation is had there. 

There are i sturgeon in the Rupert waters, bnt all the other kinds ol litli 
mentioned above are taken there in abundance. , „ , 

I am not sufficiently informed to say what the fisheries oi James and Hudson 
Bay may be ; all 1 can say is that while surveying the coast in the n-ighborhood 
of the mouth of the East Main River, I saw several porpc ises playing around, and 
I have se n an abundance of trout and whitefish taken by the Indians between 
there and Rupert House. 

8/;, _"Can a good seaport be obtained on James Bay, and with what depth of 
water ?" 

^«s.— James Bay is in general very shallow. The H. B. Co. ships cannot go 
within seven miles of Moose Factory. „ , . , 

At the mouths of the Rupert and Little Nottaway Rivers, safe harbors maybe 
had for vessels of from ten to fourteen feet draught, but they can only enter at high 

At the month of the Great Nottaway eulficient water is found for the largest 
vessels afloat, but a considerable amount of dredging would have be done before 
they can enter there 

9th.—" Are there any good water-powen, and what are the largest ?" 

Aiu.—A.n abundance of water-power is found at convenient intervals all over 
the conntry. 

I meaanrod one on the Great Notlaway,— a river aa large as the Ottawa and in 
places a mile in width,— that gave about 400,000 horsu-power, and three on the 
Bupert,— another immense River,— that gave over 800,000 each ; one of them irave 
360,000 horse-power. 

My information as to this country is di^rived from three different explorations 
made by me for the Provincial Government in 1894, 1897 and 1890, one from Te- 
miscamingue and Lake Victoria, one from the headwaters of the St. Maurice and 
one from Lakii St John, returning in 1897 by the Moose River and Lake Superior. 
I Have tollow.d the Nottaway and its three branches from their source to the mouth 
01 tbat immense river at James Bay. 

A large portion of this country forms a great clay plain which may be com- 
pared as to soil with the valley of the St. Lawrence between Montreal and 

.Sincerely yours, 


D. L. S. & C. E., 
Mem. Can. fioc. C. E. 

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